Category Archives: vaccination

When You’re Back From Vacation—Get Your Pet Vaccinations (At Kingsbrook Animal Hospital)!

One of the major reasons pet owners bring their fur-babies to the vet is for “routine shots.”  More and more often there are stories on the news about “overvaccination” or disease

KAH technician Nora is showcasing all of the canine vaccine options!

outbreaks. It can be difficult to determine what is best for a beloved pet—to vaccinate, or not to vaccinate? Fortunately, Kingsbrook Animal Hospital in Frederick MD is here to weigh in on this important topic: what are vaccines, which ones are available, and which are best for a pet?

Vaccines are substances that stimulate an immune response to

KAH technician Tiki is displaying our cat vaccines!

bacteria or a virus in a pet or person. They do this by tricking the immune system into thinking that the human or animal who received the vaccine has been infected. The immune system prepares a response to that bacteria or virus, and then saves that information in case of “reinfection.” If the immune system is already familiar with an infection, it responds quickly and strongly. This is how vaccinated pets/people are able to fight off things like the flu so much better than those who are not vaccinated. Think of it like knowing there is a pop quiz coming—the immune system is “studying” when it is vaccinated, so it will perform much better on the test than one that is unprepared.

  • Rabies is a zoonotic (will spread to people) virus that causes neurologic complications in affected animals, and it is fatal. For these reasons, rabies vaccination is required by law, even for pets who don’t go outside often. This is because a pet who slips out the door can easily encounter an infected animal—or an infected bat can quickly fly into a home. Rabies vaccines are available for dogs, cats, ferrets, horses, and several other species. Rabies is a

    KAH veterinarian Dr Lynch is giving this kitty a rabies vaccine. Pet vaccines go under the skin, not into the muscle like people vaccines.

    core vaccine.

  • Distemper is the name given to a virus that attacks the respiratory system. For dogs, the distemper vaccine is often combined with parvovirus and adenovirus vaccines (DAP), and for cats it is combined with calicivirus and panleukopenia (FVRCP). All of these viruses are most likely to attack very young or more elderly pets, but they are very easily spread between members of the same species and can quickly cause an outbreak. Distemper is a core vaccine.
  • Leptospiriosis, or “lepto,” is a type of bacteria that attacks the kidneys, nervous system, and liver. Like rabies, it is both zoonotic and fatal. It is spread through the urine of infected animals; in rural areas/suburbs, it is most often found in deer, squirrels, moles, skunks and rabbits, while in more urban areas rodents like mice and rats are the major carriers. Here in Frederick, Lepto is a core vaccine

    KAH veterinarian Dr Walker is giving a distemper vaccine. Please ask a KAH staff member how we can make the vaccine experience FearFree for your pet!

    since we have several documented cases.

  • Lyme is a bacteria that is spread by ticks. It can affect people and dogs but cannot be spread from one to the other without tick involvement—this means that ticks are vectors for Lyme disease. Here in Frederick, the Lyme vaccine is a lifestyle vaccine, because not all dogs may be at risk for Lyme. Those that are not at risk are indoor-only dogs who are current year-round on flea and tick preventative. Remember—only a week-long temperature of -10°F will kill ticks during the winter, otherwise they are just looking even harder for a warm body!
  • Bordetella is better known as “kennel cough.” It spreads very quickly from dog to dog and causes a slight fever along with its hallmark hacking cough. Environments with lots of dogs in tight

    This sweet pup is receiving a vaccine with the help of 2 KAH technicians. If your dog does better for vaccines with you present — speak up!

    quarters, such as day cares and grooming facilities, are where most infections are likely to occur—so this vaccine is a lifestyle vaccine recommended for dogs who board, groom, or go to dog parks or day care.

  • Feline Leukemia, or FeLV, is a virus that is spread from cat to cat via saliva and causes symptoms very similar to leukemia in humans. Also a lifestyle vaccine, FeLV is reccomended only for cats who go outdoors or interact with other cats who do.

That is a lot of information! It’s easy to become overwhelmed with all of the options out there. Please talk to your veterinarian at Kingsbrook Animal Hospital with any questions or concerns.

What is Leptospirosis and why should I vaccinate my dog for it?


A question we technicians hear often while we are setting up a dog for it’s annual checkup is – “What is the leptospirosis vaccine?”

Probably why most clients don’t recognize the name is because when our dogs are puppies, the leptospirosis (lepto for short) vaccine is given in a combo vaccine along with distemper, adenovirus, parainfluenza and parvo. In the veterinary profession we call this combo vaccine simply “distemper”, when in truth they are vaccinated against several diseases. Then, at the dog’s one year physical exam, we say they are due for their distemper and lepto, and you are wondering where this mysterious lepto has come from! To explain, the “distemper” vaccine is still vaccinating your loved one against distemper, adenovirus, and parvo. At Kingsbrook Animal Hopsital we want to assure that we are not overvaccinating pets and for this reason, once dogs reach the one year mark (provided they recieved the correct puppy series while young) the “distemper” vaccine will only be boostered every three years for the rest of their lives. However studies have shown that the lepto portion of the vaccine, previously given in the combo during puppyhood, is not effective for as long and needs to be boostered every year. So starting at one year, they recieve the vaccines seperately and on different schedules. Lepto is considered a core vaccination, yet is not given in all areas or even recommended in all hospitals.

Which leads to your next two questions- why is it highly recommended at KAH and what exactly IS IT!

Leptospirosis is a type of bacteria highly prevelant in our area that can affect both dogs and humans. The disease caused by this bacteria can quickly infect both the kidneys and the liver. Leptospirosis can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms that it causes to the liver and kidneys could be caused by many kinds of diseases. There is also the possiblity to get false negative results for specific tests that can be done even in the acute phase of the disease. Lepto can be contracted by direct or indirect contact with the skin or mucous membranes with an infected animal’s urine or by direct organism ingestion. Carriers of lepto include rodents, cattle, swine, racoons, opossums, and several other animal species.
Treatment for this disease is supportive care and antibiotics, however it is very expensive and, as mentioned before, difficult to diagnose.
Considering this, PREVENTION would be best and inexpensive in light of the difficulties to correctly dianose and treat this disease. Please feel free to ask our staff if you have any questions or concerns about leptospirosis and the vaccine that we administer here at KAH!